Opening Remarks (10:00am - 10:10am EST)

Beatriz Reyes-Foster, PhD

Associate Professor & Graduate Coordinator, University of Central Florida

Dr. Reyes-Foster is an associate professor. Her research interests focus on medical anthropology, specifically on the cultural interactions between medical systems and the people who use them. Her previous work focused on suicide prevention efforts in Yucatan, Mexico and most recently on the encounters and disconnects that take place between Yucatec Maya patients and psychiatrists in an acute ward of a public psychiatric hospital, also in Yucatan. Her current research interests focus on issues surrounding birth in Central Florida, particularly on the ways in which women seeking vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) make decisions about their medical care. Dr. Reyes-Foster has written about identity, media representations of indigenous people, personhood and self, cultural constructions of health and illness, and the connections between religion, spiritual beliefs, and biomedicine. She received her PhD in Sociocultural Anthropology from the University of California, Berkeley, in 2011. She joined the UCF Faculty in 2011.

Session I (10:10am - 11:30am EST)

Part I - Main Room

Emily Barron

"The Transformation of Embodied Cognition in the Archaeological Record"

10:10am - 10:30am

University of Central Florida

By applying cognitive-science theories and concepts to archaeological remains, cognitive archaeology is at the forefront of studying human cognitive evolution. Through an interdisciplinary lens, archaeologists can extrapolate what the conscious experience was like for our early hominin ancestors and how it has impacted our neuro-evolution. Specifically, embodied cognition appeals to the idea that cognition depends on aspects of the agent’s body other than the brain. As a result, there is this bi-directional relationship between the agent’s body, mind, and environment. This review will detail the specificities of embodied cognition by examining how the relationship between the body, mind, and environment transformed our cognition in the past.

Horvey M. Palacios

"The Past Remembered: Exploring Collective Memory within the Maya Lowlands"

10:30am - 10:50am

University of Central Florida

Collective memory is a fundamental component of identity creation, generating shared ideological markers in the past through which people may construct their identities. Memory studies have increasingly become integral to understanding how complex societies commemorated and reinforced the past. Architectural and material evidence have been the primary data sets for constructing arguments that utilize collective memory as their theoretical framework. However, bioarchaeological and mortuary evidence can identify profound cultural changes that may be relevant to memory studies. Death, bodily transformation, ritual practices, and identity formation can be best understood through body partibility— the concept that physical changes to a body may lead to ritual acts that eventually aide in reconstructing identities of past lives. Methods of body processing within the Maya area like primary or secondary burials include several practices varying temporally and spatially as a consequence of changing identities and political ideology. New funerary practices during the Terminal Classic Period (750a.d. - 900a.d.) of Yaxuná including the introduction of ossuaries suggest social transformations in mortuary treatment and also individual or group identity. This case study will address how changes in body processing throughout the Terminal Classic period are critical to understanding the relationship between collective memory, the body, and society within Maya society. This research will illuminate the importance of using bioarchaeological, mortuary, and archaeological data to develop rich narratives for the way ancient complex societies transformed and deployed memory processes within their society.

Tori Thibault

"Tarot and the Body"

10:50am - 11:10am

University of Central Florida

The concept of agency has been used in archaeology since the nineteenth century. Much of this literature argues that material culture in ritual or religious practice can reveal relationships between power and agents. This presentation uses archaeological theories of agency to examine how objects play a critical role in shaping human identities and rituals over time. In particular, it examines the relationship between Tarot cards, contemporary Pagan religion, and the ways that objects can have agency within this worldview. Pagans define themselves through ownership of certain divination products such as Tarot decks. Tarot cards are designed in many different designs, texts, fonts, numbers, decks, and patterned spreads. They act as a tool for users to reflect on patterns in their lives. Tarot cards are a tangible object that enable reflection on the inanimate macrocosms and microcosms of the universe, part of the central belief of Paganism that there is a greater unity of humans in the universe integrated through macro- and micro-cosms. In Pagan belief, there is an emphasis on physical expression. Pagan culture does not have temples or churches where ritual is performed. Instead, the Pagan religion encourages the creation of alters at home, in nature, or in a garden (Magliocco 2010). Participants in Pagan culture identify so highly with material objects that they often relate to other individuals through choices of occult books or symbolic ordainments like Tarot (Magliocco 2010, Pike 2001). Tarot cards are a compelling component of an alter that is chosen and placed. I argue that Tarot cards are an extension of the body through the manifestation of creative forms of identity. Thus, Tarot is a contemporary agent that transforms in the Pagan community to represent a language that communicates oneness with the universe.

Carrie Tucker

"Bowled Over: A Study in Late Preclassic Maya Trade Connections"

11:10am - 11:30am

University of Central Florida

During the 2016 field season, the Proyecto Costa Escondida uncovered a burial at the Maya port site of Vista Alegre with an unusual ceramic find: a uniquely decorated, Late Preclassic Sierra Red bowl placed over the skull of a female individual. Wax resist trickles and dots decorated the bowl interior, and the rim was heavily notched in a “crenellated” pattern. When analyzed, regional ceramic experts at the INAH Centro, a federal ceramics repository in Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico, had never seen this specific ceramic design before. Late Preclassic burials, such as Burial 1 at Vista Alegre, are rare in the Northern Maya Lowlands, and their characteristics have not been observed often enough to comment on consistent trends in funerary vessels. Additionally, some general Maya Preclassic burial traditions were observed in this interment, but other burial features were previously unknown to the research team. Given the multiple surprises from Burial 1, we believe that a wider examination of the entire burial is necessary to provide more data on the cultural influences at Vista Alegre. This presentation will explore Preclassic burial practices and ceramic evidence to provide external explanations for this complex burial context. Because foreign, distinct cultural markers are indicative of contact with distant areas, the presence of non-local traditions can outline the start of Vista Alegre’s trade relations as a port. This discovery offers an opportunity to investigate Vista Alegre’s relationships with other sites in the Northern Maya Lowlands during the Late Preclassic by a thorough and expanded analysis.

Part II - Breakout Room

Stefano Galeazzi

"Devouring the Body: How Social Networks, Eros and Digital Technologies Shape and Consume Bodies"

10:10am - 10:30am

Ca' Foscari University of Venice

Nowadays, the use of smartphones is widespread all over the world, even within the smallest and most remote communities. Millions of people use and bring smartphone with them all day long: it is the last thing we see before falling asleep and the first when we wake up. It is not only a technological object: it has become an extension of our body, and therefore of ourselves. The smartphone has become our eyes, our memory, our second brain (Andreoli, 2019); in this time of crisis, it has become our voice, our substituted presence (La Cecla, 2006) in the lives of those we love and we are linked to. The smartphone is our first and most immediate gateway to the virtual world. In this presentation, therefore, we will analyze this virtual presence, this being on the Web. Specifically, by focusing on the case study of Tinder, the famous dating app, we will see how the body is shown and enjoyed in social networks and in particular how these social networks continuously shape and re-shape human bodies through a process of eroticization and consumption.

Somya Jatwani

"Tips, Tricks and Kicks: Tracing Economic Trajectories of Belly Dancers working in Restaurants in Los Angeles"

10:30am - 10:50am

CHOREOMUNDUS (Roehampton University, London | UCA, France | NTNU, Norway | SZTE, Hungary)

The study is a comparative analysis of professional identities of three dancers as shaped by the interaction of their dance practice and its market. It traces the financial trajectories created by their strategic corporeal interaction with the customers and their motivations of working in the not-so lucrative industry of restaurant live entertainment. Transforming one's corporeal expression with respect to the immediate ambient stimuli, dancers influence their final product and how much the audience pays for it. The hidden layers of embodied knowledge a dancer possesses and uses in manipulating the consumers to tip her is brought to light. This research then demonstrates how dancers from varied socio-economic backgrounds start from the same base level of 50 dollars every evening on weekends and come back with completely different amounts of money. In examining the three dancers' personal background with respect to a market short on supply of both venues and clientele, their efforts to stabilize their own individual financial market are revealed.

Ioannis Mylonelis

"Embodied ‘Miracles’: Crossing the Boundaries of Pain. (The Case of Tariqa Rifā῾iyya in Kosovo)"

10:50am - 11:10am

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

The current study is presenting a Sufi group from the city of Prizren that I met through my fieldwork in Kosovo. Starting by the common name of Rifā ̔iyya, on the one hand, the paper identifies the modern practices of Sufism in the Balkans, and in particular the tariqa (path) Rifā ̔iyya in the Kosovo region, observing the celebration ceremony of Ali ibn Abi Talib's birthday and/ or the arrival of spring, the so-called ‘darb al-shish’ ritual, in which the members of the tariqa pierce their bodies with sharp objects. On the other hand my paper examines the reality of the absence of pain and the deliberating experience of fear through painful and extreme religious practices, which perceive the status of karāmāt nafs (miracles of Soul). My contribution seeks to make a comparison between the rituals (per se) and the existent academic literature in this field of research. The aim of this paper is to perceive the application of the so-called costly rituals or rituals of pain, unique rituals that the members of Rifā ̔iyya practice in their bodies and through the community.

Andrea Carolina Urrutia Gómez

"Malleability of the Body Through Makeup Use in Mexico City"

11:10am - 11:30am

Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa

In this presentation, I will explore the plasticity of the body and the exploration of its borders in the cosmetic industry of Mexico City. It is based on my doctoral thesis on aesthetic understandings and practices around makeup, whose informants were the employees who were in charge of its direct sale and application in certified establishments. My goal here is to expand on how the body is comprehended and affected following aesthetic models, and whether these are firmly established or negotiable. During fieldwork, the body was understood as a platform from which the appearance of the client and the worker himself is altered, reinforcing an instrumentalist perspective. Interviewees argued that it can be categorized and adjusted to mass standards of beauty; according to specific measurements which especially referred to the face, where otherness is highlighted. Additionally, the body was recognized as a sensorial locus, which could be introduced to “new” sensations and playful experimentation. Makeup was sold as a recreational activity and a relaxing moment, enjoyable though bodily perceptions – assumed to be universally identical. Judgments regarding beauty go through the arrangements demanded by the clientele, capable of developing particular bodily aspects. Even though some of these presentations do not obey aesthetic guidelines given by the makeup industry, frequently encountered preferences are acknowledged by the companies and are incorporated into their offer. However, the worker who assumes face-to-face interactions with the clientele is entrusted the task of redirecting consumers’ predilections towards the desired beauty incarnations of their employer.

Session II (11:40am - 1:00pm EST)

Part I - Main Room

Taylor Collore

"Reshaping Mother Earth: Locating Mound Sites In The Ocala National Forest"

11:40am - 12:00pm

University of Central Florida

Mother Earth is one of many names used to personify the planetary body we call Earth. Since the dawn of time, humanity has transformed and manipulated Mother Earth to our own ambitions for ritual, survival, and sadly, exploitation. Prior to the modern era where mass production and single-use items have generated a culture of waste, humans of the past tried to find value in any item they used leading to items having multiple purposes. Along coastlines and waterways of Florida oysters were bountiful and so were consumed by locals, acting as a major part of their diet. The indegineous people of the region used the oyster’s shell to build impressive and awe-inspiring shell mounds. These first peoples transformed a relatively flat landscape into an excellent vantage point where they could inter ancestors and loved ones within and provide a platform in which priests would perform upon or reside atop. These sites, long abandoned and obscured by dense vegetation, can be rediscovered using vegetation piercing LiDAR technology. LiDAR data is used to locate mound sites within the Ocala National Forest of Central Florida. Using the open source software QGIS, LiDAR data files are converted into digital elevation models (DEMs) and analyzed using manual feature extraction (MFE) to locate potential sites, and limit labor requirements normally associated with site location. After MFE, ground-truthing is performed for accessible sites to verify the validity of the LiDAR data and MFE method.

Caroline C. Jasiak

"The Direction of Digital Documentation: The Transformation of Archaeological Methodologies Through the Introduction of Digital Recording Methods"

12:00pm - 12:20pm

University of Central Florida

In archaeology, one must keep a record of the present in order to accurately understand and reconstruct the past. The integration of modern technologies into the field of archaeology has resulted in many advancements in the accuracy, and scale of data recording at archaeological sites. The earliest applications of these technologies included large cumbersome cameras, aerial photography using balloons and airplanes, and resulted in inaccurate models. Now, the application of imaging techniques by archaeologists includes more advanced versions of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), 3D scanning using structure from motion technology, and photogrammetry. The descendants of these unwieldy and unreliable technologies have drastically improved model scope and quality. These techniques are also now able to be utilized in diverse and interesting manners, from specifically being applied to archaeological site recording at a large scale to their application in artifact preservation. However, the future applications of these methods cannot be properly appreciated without understanding their history. With the development of imaging technologies, the body of archaeological literature has been transformed. This paper seeks to describe, define, deliberate upon, and discuss the history of digital technologies in order to better understand how their past applications can shape the future body of archaeological research.

Morgan Ferrell

"Technological Transformations in Forensic Archaeology"

12:20pm - 12:40pm

University of Central Florida

The application of archaeological methods to crime scenes is referred to as forensic archaeology, a discipline which grew out of the field of forensic anthropology during the 1970s and 80s. The role of the forensic archaeologist is to assist with the search, documentation, excavation, and recovery of decomposing and skeletonized human remains in forensic contexts. Since the emergence of the field, technological innovations have introduced new search and mapping methods which have transformed the process of forensic archaeological investigation. This paper explores how various digital technologies, many of which have been adopted from archaeological methods, have transformed the ways in which forensic archaeologists analyze human remains in forensic contexts. In particular, this paper focuses on geophysical surveying technologies and three-dimensional (3D) mapping. The geophysical surveying technologies that are discussed include ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and side-scan sonar, which allow forensic archaeologists to search for clandestine graves and perform underwater searches, respectively. Three-dimensional (3D) documentation techniques that are discussed include total stations, photogrammetry, and terrestrial laser scanners. These technologies allow forensic archaeologists to map remains in 3D as well as create realistic 3D models that can be used for future analysis and for presentation in court. Finally, this paper demonstrates how digital technologies have opened up new avenues of research that will continue to enhance forensic archaeological field methods in the future.

Katherine M. Lane

"Forensic Anthropology and Blast Trauma: Manifestation of Trauma in Pigs as a Result of Experimental Blast Events"

12:40pm - 1:00pm

University of Central Florida

The use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has increased in recent years due to their destructive capabilities and ease of construction. This has created a challenge for forensic anthropologists as they encounter a suite of injuries unlike those caused by more traditional assaults. Forensic anthropologists who work cases of human right abuses must be able to differentiate blast trauma from other types of injuries, such as ballistic and blunt force traumas. Therefore, experimental studies on the fracture types and dispersion of trauma in blast scenarios are necessary in order to identify and interpret blast trauma. This study utilized 32 wild pigs (Sus scrofa) that were exposed to primarily open air, close-range (1.5 meters) IED-style explosions. The pigs were either positioned in front of a plywood wall or exposed to mixed metal shrapnel materials to test how these variables affect the presentation of trauma. The resulting fracture characteristics present in the appendicular skeleton were macroscopically analyzed. Overall, trauma was extensive, with fractures focused in the regions of the body in the trajectory of the blast wave. The trauma in this study reinforced observed characteristics of blast trauma, including multi-trauma, dispersion of fractures across the body, and localized traumatic amputations. This pattern differs from the more discrete presentation of traditional trauma, and these results aid in the identification and analysis of blast trauma in a forensic medicolegal setting.

Part II - Breakout Room

Lea Harvey

"The Female Orgasm: A Long Time Coming"

11:40pm - 12:00pm

Seminole State College of Florida

The female orgasm has been a mystery to science for quite some time. Although many fields have uncovered information indicative of the potential for the female orgasm to have served as an adaptation historically, there is little evidence that suggests a biological evolutionary purpose and/or origin for this phenomenon. Via a thorough literature review, this research analyzes publications that discuss hypotheses of biological evolutionary purposes of the female orgasm, particularly in regard to ovulation and mate selection. Special consideration is given to the comparison of orgasms within human and non-human primates as well as heterosexual and non-heterosexual women so as to examine the variability of the purposes that it may serve in varying communities. Regardless of whether this research is able to draw a conclusion about their true evolutionary purpose, the argument will be made that the cultural evolutionary purpose of orgasms experienced by women is just as, if not more important than, their biological evolutionary purpose. Biological preoccupation with the female orgasm’s purpose prevents us from expanding our knowledge about its maintenance and cultural significance. A biocultural approach to this question is best suited going forward to learn as much as possible about the female orgasm.

Jacqueline M. Berger

"From Patient to Object: Transformation of 19th and Early 20th Century Italian Psychiatric Patient Bodies - an Exploration of Taphonomy and Novel Theoretical Synthesis"

12:00pm - 12:20pm

University of South Florida

Archaeological interest in historic institutional contexts is steadily increasing, addressing the experiences of marginalized populations, including the frequent collection of their remains in the furtherance of early anatomical study and the treatment of these remains postmortem. Besides this scholarship, biological anthropologists – including forensic anthropologists - have also undertaken reflexive analyses of long-established and modern anatomical collections; however, taphonomic alterations beyond gross bodily treatment and disposal have not been extensively explored. The present study demonstrates the value of more detailed taphonomic data and its role in theoretical analysis, utilizing the Siena Craniological Collection (SCC) from Siena, Italy, composed of patients from the L’Ospedale Psichiatrico San Niccolò (San Niccolò Psychiatric Hospital - SNPH). First, frequencies of SCC taphonomic traits were compared to a modern anatomical teaching collection. Results indicate highly significant differences (a = 0.05) in trait prevalence between the SCC and the modern comparative sample, reflective of differences in maceration, autopsy, handling, and collections management, storage, and repair. Second, these results were interpreted utilizing a novel theoretical synthesis of structural violence, embodiment, and necropolitics, forming a cohesive analytical picture of anatomization in 19th and early 20th century Italy. In this vein, the present study specifically explores how non-consensual anatomization and curation as disembodied crania transgresses more traditional views of the Catholic body, as well as modern “Christian respect” for human remains in any form. Through this process, individuals were transformed from community members to psychiatric patients, and finally, into objects of study as anatomical specimens, reflected by the noted taphonomy.

Jonathan Barkmeier

"Mobility in Medieval England: A Multi-Methodological Approach to the Urban-Rural Connection"

12:20pm - 12:40pm

University of Central Florida

Socio-cultural and environmental factors play a key role in determining biocultural phenomena that can observed on skeletal populations. Various phenotypic and isotopic evidence is examined to help understand underlying questions about populations movement and geneflow, as well as questions about migratory patterns of certain individuals. During the medieval period in England, the introduction of feudalism in the High Middle Ages (~AD 1000- AD 1250) may have limited migration and created sedentary lifestyles for the peasant class who lived and worked on land owned by the nobility. This paper seeks to understand how the social implications of medieval feudalism and the subsequent transformation of the English rural and urban landscape affected migratory patterns and populations on a genetic level. This paper addresses two primary goals: 1) Present evidence in the form of phenotypic non-metric traits to show possible restriction in geneflow between rural and urban communities and, 2) the application of isotopic analysis (oxygen and strontium) to assess the degree in which mobility of the peasant class was confined by the urban-rural dichotomy. It has been hypothesized that many urban areas were economically and socially linked with smaller, periphery villages, limiting geneflow to only the surrounding areas. Biodistance results show that gene-flow was limited between populations in medieval England, supporting the idea of feudal constriction of movement. With these findings, this paper develops a model that integrates isotopic analysis in order to further examine migratory patterns.

Break (12:40pm - 1:40pm EST)

Network Breakout Session (1:00pm - 1:40pm EST)

Join us in the Breakout room to talk and meet new friends during a break between presentations.

Session III (1:40pm - 3:00pm EST)

Part I - Main Room

Diego Vallejo Díaz

"Bodies of Prevention, Bodies of Pleasure and In-betweens: A Diffractive Reading of PrEP"

1:40pm - 2:00pm

Externado de Colombia University

Over the course of more than two decades, the use of antiretrovirals to deal with the HIV has become broader, particularly with Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). This presentation is based on an ethnographic research that took place in Bogota (Colombia) during the initial stage of the current effort to regulate PrEP and aims to introduce two questions —and its overlapped possible responses— about “the body” and its relations with PrEP, that are performed in people’s lives with practices such as having sexual encounters, establishing a couple relationship, meeting people through apps, assisting to the doctor or buying the medication in the so called ‘black markets’. On the one hand, the question is how certain increasing and standardized rationality of the prevention —led by physicians and public health professionals, but not only — does the body. By setting the grounds of how this technology should be regulated into medical and legal terms, their practices do a body that is expected to be found in patients and, sometimes, forced to exist. On the other hand, the question is how the body is done among certain entanglements, that are inherent to life, and in which some boundaries of assumed distinctions like human/non-human, HIV+/HIV-, health/risk or nature/technology get erased. The multiple ways in which pleasure creates paths to explore the relationships with others, like bareback sex, set especial conditions for PrEP to become embodied, that can defy this body that the rationality of prevention tends to seek and produce.

Whitney Margaritis

"Cannabinoid Use in Autoimmune Patients: A Systematic Review of the Transformations of the Current Body of Work"

2:00pm - 2:20pm

University of Central Florida

Autoimmune patients who fail to adequately cope with the outcomes of their disease often suffer from degradation of agency due to failure to meet social expectations. Lack of agency in social situations and medical advocacy leads many to find alternative solutions to treatment of chronic pain and symptoms. There is a growing popularity in the use of cannabinoid products, as there is purported evidence associated with its effectiveness in the treatment of inflammation, anxiety, depression, and other therapeutic uses. The sale of cannabinoid products has more than doubled in the past few years even though little depth of evidence exists on the long-term health effects of cannabinoid use for medical purpose outside of its long standing uses in epileptic patients. This study examines the current body of work involving cannabinoid use for self-treatment specifically regarding autoimmune diseases. A systematic literature review was performed for research from 2010 to 2020. Articles for inclusion pertained to three areas: the use of cannabinoids, self-treatment for chronic disease, and the lived experience for autoimmune patients. Findings show correlations between use of cannabinoid products for self-treatment and level of agency regarding relationship with physicians in the use or lack of use on the part of the patient. Specifically, higher use rates are associated with higher levels of chronic pain and lower levels of quality of life.

Trinity Johnson, MPH

"The Right to Reproduce"

2:20pm - 2:40pm

University of Central Florida

Reproductive rights include the right to reproduce. The United States of America has systematically disenfranchised Black American communities specifically since its inception. Even today, we see this pattern of neglect effect Black American communities. In conversations surrounding healthcare accessibility, globally we fail to include developed nations in the conversation, because there is a general assumption that those who are members of these nations have access to necessary care. Unfortunately, that is not the case for much of the population in the United States. Marginalized groups in developed nations falling through these proverbial cracks are an international concern. Domestically, this erasure is exacerbated for groups who fall within multiple marginalized identities. Reproductive health for Black women in the United States is intertwined with the harsh realities of chattel slavery. Historically, this conversation around reproductive rights has mostly included women’s right to birth control and abortions. While this is a vital component of reproductive rights, it’s vital that we include how the bodies of Black women have been exploited without acknowledging their right to reproduce. I argue that the right to reproduce must be included in all conversations surround reproductive rights for women, otherwise we continue to abandon the most vulnerable parts of our populations.

Chelsea Daws

"Assessing Complexity in Newly Industrialized Neoliberal Regions: Mexico's Struggle for Sustainability"

2:40pm - 3:00pm

University of Central Florida

Issues of conservation and sustainability plague both the Global North and South. Industrial pollutants, deforestation, insecure water and land tenure, and depleted soils are among factors responsible for changing landscapes, food insecurity, and increased morbidity. Mexico’s large urban, rural, and indigenous communities add complexity to how the nation negotiates domestic and international policies regarding natural resources. I argue Mexico occupies a liminal space between the developed and developing worlds. The paper also contends Mexico’s colonial history, geopolitical landscape, and ecological setting occupy a unique contextual space. Review of scholarly research reveals Mexico is at the forefront of climate change impacts, energy issues, and food security challenges. Examination of thirteen case studies, books, and research articles supplement analysis of Mexico’s land and water management, industrial and agricultural pollution, resource scarcity, urbanization, and sustainability strategies. The paper also provides a cross-sectional analysis of privatization, water/land conservation, agricultural systems, and public health. The prior literature suggests Mexico features institutional inequalities and structural violence which disproportionately impact indigenous populations and other marginalized groups. Assessment of case studies and articles demonstrate that competing interests of neoliberalism and multinational corporations combined with weak land management practices and the looming threat of climate change perplex Mexico’s food movements and sustainability strategies. Findings show effective water and resource management is paramount to achieving sustainable food and water systems in” newly industrialized countries” (NICs) like Mexico. The data elucidate the ways long-term conservation will require NICs’ cooperation with marginalized communities and global collaboration across the developed and developing world.

Part II - Breakout Room

Karla J. Cardona Caravantes

"NAGPRA and ILO 169: Transformation of Tribal and Indigenous Cultural Heritage Preservation"

1:40pm - 2:00pm

University of Central Florida

This presentation explores the implementation of two legal instruments that take into consideration the rights of tribal and indigenous populations of the United States and other countries of the world, particularly of Guatemala. Both, NAGPRA (Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act) and ILO 169 (International Labor Organization Convention on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples) set certain rules regarding the consultation process for the proper preservation of cultural heritage, which includes human remains, objects and territory. Considering this, the main argument of this paper is that the consultation guidelines stated in NAGPRA are suitable to improve the consultation process of ILO 169 in countries like Guatemala, hence providing a route towards the transformation of the preservation of indigenous non-living bodies and cultural heritage. Through the definition of both legal instruments and the description of different case studies it is possible to obtain a new perspective regarding the opportunities and threats that consultation processes provide to cultural heritage management. The encouraging outcomes of some of NAGPRA’s consultation processes can make ILO 169 a stronger tool to defend and preserve cultural heritage and territory of the signatory countries like Guatemala.

Melissa Gomez

"Dietary Transitions and Societal Transformation in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt"

2:00pm - 2:20pm

University of Central Florida

This paper, Dietary Transitions and Societal Transformations, contains dietary reconstructions of a unique population excavated from Kellis 2, a Romano-Christian era (c.50-450 CE) cemetery located in the ancient city of Kellis, Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. The sampled population lived during a time of great transition when Egypt, a previously pagan society, began following Christian dogma after falling under Roman rule resulting in dietary shifts visible in sampled human tissues. Previously, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses were conducted on bulk hair keratin from excavated individuals to examine their dietary practices and health status during this societal transformation. This study uses historical dietary reconstruction data in combination with the Bayesian mixing-model Food Reconstruction Using Isotopic Transfer Signals (FRUITS) to quantify the contributions various food groups make to the diet of the juvenile and elderly age groups within this community. Combining paleodiet stable isotope analysis with FRUITS modeling provides an opportunity to predict and evaluate dietary and social practices related to weaning and aging. When C3 plants, C4 plants and protein sources were evaluated, FRUITS modeling confirmed that juvenile weaning began around 6 months of age at which time the addition of herbivore dairy and cereal grains were added to their diet, while elderly individuals (+50 years) appear to transition to a diet with greater emphasis on protein. The use of FRUITS modeling in this study has added beneficial data to understudied social groups (e.g., elders) and highlights its effectiveness in demonstrating dietary transition during times of bodily and societal transformation.

Keynote Speaker (3:00pm - 4:00pm EST)

Aaron Deter-Wolf

Prehistoric Archaeologist, State of Tennessee Division of Archaeology

Aaron Deter-Wolf is a Prehistoric Archaeologist with the Tennessee Division of Archaeology in Nashville, where his work includes managing ancient Native American sites on State-owned lands and conducting archaeological excavations and research. In addition to his work in Tennessee, for the past decade Aaron has been a leading researcher in developing the archaeological study of tattooing. Those efforts include studies using contextual analysis and microscopic use-wear signatures to identify tattooing tools in archaeological collections, projects to systematically document tattoos on ancient preserved human remains, and experiments recreating and testing ancient and historic tattooing implements.

In 2009, Aaron organized the first American academic symposium to examine ancient and early historic Native American tattooing, which culminated in the volume Drawing with Great Needles: Ancient Tattoo Traditions of North America. He has participated in international symposia on ancient body modification, authored multiple research publications on the archaeological identification of tattooing artifacts, and is co-editor of the volume Ancient Ink: The Archaeology of Tattooing, the first-ever book dedicated to the global archaeological study of tattooing. In recent years Aaron was part of research teams which identified a 2,000-year old cactus spine tattooing tool from southern Utah, and 5,000-year old turkey bone tattooing tools from Tennessee. He shares information about ancient and historic tattooing and body modification on the Instagram account @archaeologyink.